Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:

The most alarming of man’s assaults upon the environment is the contamination of air, earth, rivers, and sea with lethal materials. This pollution is for the most part irrevocable; the chain of evil it initiates is for the most part irreversible. In this contamination of the environment, chemicals are the sinister partners of radiation in changing the very nature of the world; radiation released through nuclear explosions into the air, comes to the earth in rain, lodges into the soil, enters the grass or corn, or wheat grown there and reaches the bones of a human being, there to remain until his death. Similarly, chemicals sprayed on crops lie long in soil, entering living organisms, passing from one to another in a chain of poisoning and death. Or they pass by underground streams until they emerge and combine into new forms that kill vegetation, sicken cattle, and harm those who drink from once pure wells.

It took hundreds of millions of years to produce the life that now inhabits the earth and reached a stage of adjustment and balance with its surroundings. The environment contained elements that were hostile as well as supporting. Even within the light of the sun, there were short wave radiations with power to injure. Given time, life has adjusted and a balance reached. For time is the essential ingredient, but in the modern world there is no time. The rapidity of change and the speed with which new situations are created follow the heedless pace of man rather than the deliberate pace of nature. Radiation is no longer the bombardment of cosmic rays; it is now the unnatural creation of man’s tampering with the atom. The chemicals to which life is asked to make adjustments are no longer merely calcium and silica and copper and all the rest of the minerals washed out of the rocks and carried in the rivers to the sea; they are the synthetic creations of man’s inventive mind, brewed in his laboratories, and having no counterparts in nature.

(a) On the basis of your understanding of the above passage make notes on it using Headings and sub-headings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever Necessary-minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply a title to it.

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words.


 (a) Title : Man's assaults upon the environment

1. Assults upon nature

1.I Pollution

1.I [a] air

     [b] river

     [c] sea

1.II Chain of evil

1.II [a] Chemi. assult

      [b] redi. of nuc. expt.

1.III Impact on :

1.III  [a] rain

         [b] soil

         [c] bones human Being

         [d] crops


2. Life on earth :

2.I millions years to produce

2.II a state of adjustment

2.III elements

2.III [a] hostile

        [b] supporting


3. Rapid Changes :

3.I Rediation – kombet

3.I [a] unnatural creation

3.II The chemicals

3.II [a] Ca

       [b] Silica

       [c] Cu

3.III Man's inuentino mind

Key to abbreviations

1. Chemi – Chemical

2. Nuc. – Nuclear

3. Expl. – Explosions

4. Hum.Be. – Human being

5. Komlet – Bombardment

6. Ca – Calcium

7. Cu – Copper

(b) Man's assaults upon nature
Goducing life on the earth takes millions of years again get the balance with its other elements. But human destraged the harmonies by assaulting upon the nature with the help of his incentive minds products like bombs. Chemicals etc.