Discuss the various abnormal constituents of urine.

Abnormal constituents of urine are :

1. Proteinuria : e.g. When albumin and globulin are present in urine.

2. Glycosuria : When glucose is present in urea.

3. Hematuria : It is the presence of blood in urine is called hematuria.

4. Ketouria : The presence of ketone bodies causes ketouria.

5. Albuminuria : Presence of albumin in urine is callcd albuminureu.